Short-term overeating results in incomplete energy intake compensation regardless of energy density or macronutrient composition

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Jan;22(1):119-30. doi: 10.1002/oby.20587. Epub 2013 Sep 10.


Objective: To evaluate the effects of overeating (140% of energy requirements) a high-fat low-energy density diet (HF/LED, 1.05 kcal/g), high-fat high-energy density diet (HF/HED, 1.60 kcal/g), and high-carbohydrate (HC) LED (1.05 kcal/g) for 2-days on subsequent 4-day energy intake (EI), activity levels, appetite, and mood.

Design and methods: Using a randomized cross-over design, energy expenditure and EI were standardized during overeating.

Results: In 20 adults with a mean ± SD BMI of 30.7 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) , EI was not suppressed until the second day after overeating and accounted for ∼30% of the excess EI. Reductions in EI did not differ among the three diets or across days. Overeating had no effect on subsequent energy expenditure but steps/day decreased after the HC/LED and HF/HED. Sleep time was increased after the HF/HED compared to both LEDs. After overeating a HF/HED vs. HF/LED, carbohydrate cravings, hunger, prospective food consumption, and sadness increased and satisfaction, relaxation, and tranquility decreased.

Conclusions: Diet type, time, or their interaction had no impact on compensation over 4 days. No adaptive thermogenesis was observed. The HF/HED vs. HF/LED had detrimental effects on food cravings, appetite, and mood. These results suggest short-term overeating is associated with incomplete compensation.

Trial registration: NCT01653145 NCT01653886.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Height
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Energy Intake*
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperphagia / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity
  • Pilot Projects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Proteins

Associated data