Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in healthy subjects following oral and intravenous administration

J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 Jul;30(7):643-53. doi: 10.1002/j.1552-4604.1990.tb01868.x.


The pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine were studied in healthy subjects following administration of cyclosporine both orally (10 mg kg-1) and intravenously (4 mg kg-1) without and with high fat meals. Both blood and plasma samples (separated at 37 degrees C) were analyzed for cyclosporine concentration. Blood and plasma clearances of cyclosporine were calculated to be 0.36 and 0.47 L hr-1 Kg-1, respectively, and volume of distribution at steady state was calculated to be 1.21 L Kg-1, when cyclosporine was administered without a high fat meal. Using plasma analysis, the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine was estimated to be 21 and 79%, when administered without and with a high fat meal, respectively. When cyclosporine was administered intravenously together with a high fat meal, both clearance and volume of distribution increased significantly. Blood and plasma clearances of cyclosporine were 0.44 and 0.70 L hr-1 Kg-1, respectively, when cyclosporine was administered along with a high fat meal. We conclude that food not only enhances the absorption of cyclosporine but also enhances its clearance and volume of distribution. The observed variability in clearance, bioavailability, and volume of distribution values for cyclosporine across various pharmacokinetic studies can be partially accounted by the type of food administered and the sampling matrix used for analysis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Cyclosporins / administration & dosage
  • Cyclosporins / blood
  • Cyclosporins / pharmacokinetics*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Food*
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Male
  • Random Allocation
  • Time Factors


  • Cyclosporins
  • Dietary Fats