Background: Esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective study examined use of a modified frailty index as a potential predictor of morbidity and mortality in esophagectomy patients.
Methods: National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files were reviewed for 2005 through 2010. Patients undergoing esophagectomy were selected based on CPT codes. A modified frailty index with 11 variables was used to determine correlation between frailty and postesophagectomy morbidity and mortality. Data were analyzed using χ(2) test and logistic regression.
Results: A total of 2,095 patients were included in the analysis. Higher frailty scores were associated with a statistically significant increase in morbidity and mortality. A frailty score of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 had associated morbidity rates of 17.9% (142 of 795 patients), 25.1% (178 of 710 patients), 31.4% (126 of 401 patients), 34.4% (48 of 140 patients), 44.4% (16 of 36 patients), and 61.5% (8 of 13 patients), respectively. A frailty score of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 had associated mortality rates of 1.8% (14 of 795 patients), 3.8% (27 of 710 patients), 4% (16 of 401 patients), 7.1% (10 of 140 patients), 8.3% (3 of 36 patients), and 23.1% (3 of 13 patients), respectively. When using multivariate logistic regression for mortality comparing age, functional status, prealbumin, emergency surgery, wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and sex, only age and frailty were statistically significant. The odds ratio was 31.84 for frailty (p = 0.015) and 1.05 (p = 0.001) for age.
Conclusions: Using a large national database, a modified frailty index was shown to correlate with postesophagectomy morbidity and mortality. Such an index may be used to aid in improving risk assessment and patient selection for esophagectomy.
Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.