[Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon]

C R Biol. May-Jun 2013;336(5-6):310-6. doi: 10.1016/j.crvi.2013.04.013. Epub 2013 Jul 5.
[Article in French]

Abstract

The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions.

Keywords: Bassin versant de la Mingoa; Cameroon; Cameroun; Diarrhea; Diarrhées; Mingoa's watershed; Parasite infestation; Parasitoses intestinales; Pollution; Water pollution; Yaoundé.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ascaris lumbricoides
  • Cameroon / epidemiology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Female
  • Groundwater / analysis
  • Health
  • Humans
  • Hygiene
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Risk
  • Streptococcus
  • Toilet Facilities / statistics & numerical data
  • Water Microbiology
  • Water Pollution / adverse effects*
  • Water Pollution / analysis
  • Water Purification