Golden goal controls dendrite elongation and branching of multidendritic arborization neurons in Drosophila

Genes Cells. 2013 Nov;18(11):960-73. doi: 10.1111/gtc.12089. Epub 2013 Aug 6.


Precise refinement of axonal and dendritic patterns is essential for the maturation of functional neuronal circuits. Although several transmembrane molecules have been shown to control the development of both axons and dendrites, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these different processes are poorly understood. Golden Goal (Gogo) is one of the molecules that are known to control the development of axons in the Drosophila visual system. In this study, we analyzed Gogo function in dendritic field formation of dorsal multidendritic arborization (md-da) neurons of the Drosophila Peripheral Nervous System. We showed that Gogo is required to restrain the growth of ddaC dendrites toward the midline in the embryo. During larval stages, Gogo promotes dendritic branching of the complex classIV ddaC neurons. However, over-expression of Gogo restrained dendritic branch formation in ddaC neurons, and this phenotype was enhanced by co-over-expression with Flamingo (Fmi), a partner of Gogo in axon guidance. These results suggest Gogo plays important roles in maintaining homeostasis of dendritic branching. Like axons, the cytoplasmic part of Gogo is required for its function in dendritic tree formation, suggesting that Gogo conveys information from extracellular cues to intracellular molecules that control dendrite development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Axons / physiology
  • Cadherins / genetics
  • Cadherins / metabolism
  • Dendrites / physiology*
  • Drosophila / cytology*
  • Drosophila / embryology
  • Drosophila / growth & development
  • Drosophila Proteins / genetics
  • Drosophila Proteins / metabolism
  • Eye Proteins / genetics
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Larva / cytology
  • Larva / genetics
  • Larva / metabolism
  • Morphogenesis
  • Mutation
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Phenotype
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism*


  • Cadherins
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Eye Proteins
  • Gogo protein, Drosophila
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • stan protein, Drosophila