MC4R rs489693: a clinical risk factor for second generation antipsychotic-related weight gain?

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Oct;16(9):2103-9. doi: 10.1017/S1461145713000849. Epub 2013 Aug 7.


Weight gain is a therapy limiting and very frequent adverse effect of many second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs. The human melanocortin four receptor (MC4R) is a very promising candidate gene possibly influencing SGA-related weight gain. The rs489693 polymorphism near the MC4R gene was associated with SGA-related weight gain in a genome-wide association study. We tried to replicate these results in our independent naturalistic study population. From 341 Caucasian inpatients receiving at least one SGA drug (olanzapine, clozapine, risperidone, paliperidone, quetiapine or amisulpride), carriers homozygous for the rs489693 A-allele (n = 35) showed a 2.2 times higher weight increase (+2.2 kg) than carriers of the CC-genotype (+1 kg) after 4 wk of treatment (analysis of covariance, p = 0.039). We revealed an even stronger effect in a subpopulation without weight gain inducing co-medication (factor 3.1, +2.8 kg, p = 0.044, (n = 16 of 169)) and in first episode patients (factor 2.7, +2.7 kg, p = 0.017, (n = 13 of 86)). Our results confirm the rs489693 A-allele as a possible risk factor for SGA-related weight gain.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4 / genetics*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Weight Gain / genetics*


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • MC4R protein, human
  • Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4