Purpose: Adipose tissue is now recognized as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Our aim was to investigate the effect of the dietary fat on the two main adipose tissue functions, endocrine and lipid store, by analyzing the adipose tissue gene expression from metabolic syndrome patients.
Methods: A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned 39 metabolic syndrome patients to 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: (1) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA), (2) high-monounsaturated fatty acid (HMUFA), (3) low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with long-chain n-3 fatty acids (LFHCC n-3), and (4) low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with placebo (LFHCC), for 12 weeks each. A fat challenge reflecting the fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post-intervention.
Results: The long-term consumption of HSFA, LFHCC, and LFHCC n-3 diets, but not HMUFA diet, decreased the perilipin fasting mRNA levels. LFHCC diet consumption increased fasting FABP4 expression, while it was reduced by the consumption of LFHCC n-3 diet. LFHCC meal reduced, while LFHCC n-3 meal intake increased postprandial CAV1 expression.
Conclusion: The quantity and quality of dietary fat induce differential lipid storage and processing related gene expression, which may interact with the expression of adipokines through common regulatory mechanisms.