Because of acute retinopathy of prematurity 14 premature infants (900-1,630 g birth weight) were treated with cryocoagulation (10 children, both eyes; 4 only one eye) between 1976 and 1984 and were followed up until they were 2-7 years of age. The average refractive power of 20 eyes (those in which refraction could be determined) was -1.5 +/- 4.1 dptr. Twelve eyes (60.0%) were hyperopic (average: +1.3 +/- 0.4 dptr), and 8 eyes (40.0%) were myopic (average: -5.7 +/- 3.6 dptr). Three eyes in which cryocoagulation was done twice or three times because of a severe course developed pronounced myopia (greater than 7.0 dptr). When comparing both eyes of 4 children in whom cryotherapy had been carried out in only one eye, cryotherapy was found to have no influence on refractive errors (average anisometropia +0.4 +/- 0.4 dptr).