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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2013 Sep;10(3):171-83.
doi: 10.3109/19390211.2013.820248. Epub 2013 Aug 9.

Baker's Yeast Beta Glucan Supplementation Increases Salivary IgA and Decreases Cold/Flu Symptomatic Days After Intense Exercise

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Baker's Yeast Beta Glucan Supplementation Increases Salivary IgA and Decreases Cold/Flu Symptomatic Days After Intense Exercise

Brian K McFarlin et al. J Diet Suppl. .
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Abstract

Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p < .05). In E1, BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA (p = .048) at 2 hr after exercise compared to placebo. In summary, the present study demonstrates that BG may reduce URTI symptomatic days and improve mucosal immunity (salivary IgA) postexercise.

Figures

<b>FIGURE 1.</b>
FIGURE 1.
Testing Timelines for Experiment One (A) and Two (B). (A) Testing in experiment one was completed using a field study where subjects completed 28 days of supplementation with either soluble BG, insoluble BG, or placebo (rice flour) after completion of a marathon. Subjects were provided two packets of health surveys in a business reply envelope and asked to return them to the laboratory for evaluation at 14 and 28 days postmarathon. (B) In experiment two, subjects were supplemented with either insoluble BG or placebo in a randomized crossover design for 10 days prior to a cycling bout (49 ± 6 min) in a hot (45°C), humid (50% relative humidity) environment. Saliva samples were collected with a salivette at baseline (prior to supplementation), prior to exercise (PRE), immediately (POST), and 2 hr (2H) after exercise.
<b>FIGURE 2.</b>
FIGURE 2.
Postmarathon Sickness. (A and B) Subjects reported significant reductions in the number of URTI symptomatic days postmarathon when consuming BG compared with placebo. Values represent the average number of days a group of subjects reported health issues out of a maximum of 28 possible reporting days. BG was associated with an ∼50% reduction in URTI symptomatic days compared to placebo. The symbol “*” indicates placebo greater than both soluble and insoluble BG.
<b>FIGURE 3.</b>
FIGURE 3.
Salivary Immunoglobulin Response. Subjects who were participating in a larger clinical trial provided a saliva sample prior to supplementation with either placebo or BG. After 10 days of supplementation, subjects provided a second resting saliva sample. Additional saliva samples were collected immediately and 2-hr postexercise. We found a significant reduction in salivary IgA after exercise in the placebo condition at POST and 2H, which is the typical exercise response. The BG condition demonstrated a statistically significant increase in salivary IgA at 2H. The symbol “*” indicates greater than placebo (p < .05).

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References

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