Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation on the immune response to tetanus toxoid vaccination in a mouse model

J Diet Suppl. 2013 Sep;10(3):229-40. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2013.822452. Epub 2013 Aug 9.


The aim of this study was to investigate whether Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation could enhance the immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine in a mouse model. Vaccination of TT was performed on day 7 and 21 in mice fed daily with Spirulina (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight). Both Spirulina supplementation and TT vaccination did not significantly affect body weight gain of the mice. Supplementation of Spirulina significantly enhanced IgG level (p = .01) after the first but not after the second TT vaccination. The anti-TT IgG levels of the groups that received low dose and high dose of Spirulina were not significantly different. Spirulina supplementation did not show significant effects on in vitro splenocyte proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4) production induced by Con A and TT. This study showed that Spirulina supplementation could enhance primary immune response in terms of antibody production, but not secondary immune response following TT vaccination in a mouse model.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Products / immunology*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Immunity / drug effects*
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood*
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-4 / biosynthesis
  • Lymphocyte Activation / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Models, Animal
  • Spirulina / immunology*
  • Spleen / cytology
  • Spleen / drug effects
  • Tetanus Toxoid / immunology
  • Tetanus Toxoid / pharmacology*
  • Vaccination*
  • Weight Gain / drug effects


  • Biological Products
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Tetanus Toxoid
  • Interleukin-4
  • Interferon-gamma