A novel insight on chronic AlCl3 neurotoxicity through IL-6 and GFAP expressions: modulating effect of functional food fenugreek seeds

Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Sep;16(5):218-24. doi: 10.1179/1476830512Y.0000000048.


Objective: This study was designed to review the effect of chronic aluminium exposure on interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in the posterior brain and test the putative modulating effect of fenugreek seeds.

Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control; AlCl3 during 5 months (500 mg/kg body weight, intragastric for 1 month then 1600 ppm via the drinking water); AlCl3 plus fenugreek seed powder (FSP) (5%) during the last 2 months and FSP alone.

Results: Oral administration of aluminium chloride during 5 months caused hypoproduction of IL-6 together with a decrease in GFAP reactivity and an alteration of antioxidant status in the posterior brain. On the other hand, fenugreek seeds supplementation was able to enhance IL-6 expression, re-increase GFAP reactivity, and modulate the pro-oxidant-related effect.

Discussion: In the context of recent researches, IL-6 hypoproduction in the posterior brain could be a novel mechanism of Al chronic toxicity with a direct effect on glial cells. Using FSP as a diet supplement could offer a neuroprotective effect against Al toxicity. This could be mediated by astroglial cells protection, antioxidant and immunomodulatory actions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum Chloride
  • Aluminum Compounds / administration & dosage
  • Aluminum Compounds / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain Chemistry
  • Chlorides / administration & dosage
  • Chlorides / toxicity*
  • Female
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis*
  • Interleukin-6 / analysis*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Trigonella


  • Aluminum Compounds
  • Antioxidants
  • Chlorides
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Interleukin-6
  • Plant Extracts
  • Aluminum Chloride
  • fenugreek seed meal