Purpose: To characterize the cytomegalovirus-associated anterior segment inflammation and to determine whether the number of cytomegalovirus is significantly correlated with the disease characteristics.
Methods: Retrospective consecutive case series. Seventy-three patients with refractory anterior segment inflammation due to iridocyclitis, corneal endotheliitis and keratouveitis were studied. All the patients were suspected to have cytomegalovirus infection and had undergone real-time PCR of the aqueous humor to determine the amount of cytomegalovirus DNA.
Results: Cytomegalovirus DNA was detected in 24 of the 73 cases. The cytomegalovirus copy number was significantly correlated with the number of recurrent episodes and glaucoma treatment levels, but was not significantly correlated with the disease type. A high cytomegalovirus copy number was a significant risk factor for IOP elevation [Odds ratio (OR) per logarithm CMV amount: 2.5 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.4), presence of coin-shaped lesions (2.3 (1.3-4.0)), recurrent inflammation (2.1 (1.3-3.5)), and reduction of endothelial cell densities (1.7 (1.2-2.5))]. An IOP elevation [OR 18.2 (95 % CI 2.2-153.0)], reduction of endothelial cell densities [13.2 (2.9-60.0)], and recurrent inflammations [11.9 (2.5-56.6)], but not the disease type, were significant predictors of the presence of >10(3) copies/ml cytomegalovirus in the aqueous.
Conclusions: Measurements of the cytomegalovirus DNA amount is useful for evaluating the severity of the anterior segment inflammation.