Effects of citicholine and of the combination citicholine + piracetam on the memory (experiments on mice)

Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1990;16(1):25-31.


The memory effects of citicholine (CCh) and piracetam (Pc) were tested in experiments on mice using the training method with passive avoidance and negative reinforcement (step-through). In single doses of 25, 50, 100 and 500 mg/kg, CCh applied one hour prior to training enhanced to the same degree and statistically significantly the retention of the memory traces in tests both 24 h and 7 days after the training session; Pc in a dose of 500 mg/kg improved the retention in memory tests 24 h after training, but had no significant effect during the tests 7 days after the training. Combined application of CCh and Pc in doses which are ineffective with respect to the memory process (CCh--10 mg/kg and Pc--200 mg/kg) caused a significant enhancement of the retention during the tests both 24 h and 7 days after the training. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg i.p.), applied 30 min prior to the training, manifested a marked amnestic effect during the tests 24 h after the training, but this effect was totally prevented if either CCh in a dose of 50 mg/kg or Pc in a dose of 500 mg/kg were applied before scopolamine. Citicholine in a dose of 100 mg/kg, as well as the combination of 50 mg/kg CCh and 500 mg/kg PC, not only completely prevented the scopolamine-induced amnesia, but they also significantly increased the retention of the memory traces in the scopolamine-treated mice compared with the retention observed in the control animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Amnesia / chemically induced
  • Animals
  • Avoidance Learning / drug effects
  • Choline / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Memory / drug effects*
  • Mice
  • Models, Psychological
  • Piracetam / pharmacology*
  • Pyrrolidinones / pharmacology*
  • Scopolamine


  • Pyrrolidinones
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline
  • Scopolamine
  • Choline
  • Piracetam