Assessment of satiety depends on the energy density and portion size of the test meal

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Feb;22(2):318-24. doi: 10.1002/oby.20589. Epub 2013 Sep 23.


Objective: Foods that enhance satiety can reduce overconsumption, but the availability of large portions of energy-dense foods may counter their benefits. The influence on meal energy intake of varying the energy density and portion size of food consumed after a preload shown to promote satiety was tested.

Design and methods: In a crossover design, 46 women were served lunch on six days. On four days they ate a compulsory salad (300 g, 0.33 kcal/g). Unlike previous studies, instead of varying the preload, the subsequent test meal of pasta was varied between standard and increased levels of both energy density (1.25 or 1.66 kcal/g) and portion size (450 or 600 g). On two control days a salad was not served.

Results: Following the salad, the energy density and portion size of the test meal independently affected meal energy intake (both P < 0.02). Serving the higher-energy-dense pasta increased test meal intake by 153 ± 19 kcal and serving the larger portion of pasta increased test meal intake by 40 ± 16 kcal. Compared to having no salad, consuming the salad decreased test meal intake by 123 ± 18 kcal.

Conclusions: The effect of satiety-enhancing foods can be influenced by the energy density and portion size of other foods at the meal.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet, Reducing / methods
  • Edible Grain / adverse effects
  • Edible Grain / chemistry
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperphagia / etiology
  • Hyperphagia / prevention & control*
  • Lunch*
  • Obesity / diet therapy
  • Overweight / diet therapy
  • Pennsylvania
  • Portion Size / adverse effects*
  • Satiety Response*
  • Vegetables / adverse effects
  • Vegetables / chemistry
  • Young Adult