Genetic evidence for recent population mixture in India

Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Sep 5;93(3):422-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.07.006. Epub 2013 Aug 8.


Most Indian groups descend from a mixture of two genetically divergent populations: Ancestral North Indians (ANI) related to Central Asians, Middle Easterners, Caucasians, and Europeans; and Ancestral South Indians (ASI) not closely related to groups outside the subcontinent. The date of mixture is unknown but has implications for understanding Indian history. We report genome-wide data from 73 groups from the Indian subcontinent and analyze linkage disequilibrium to estimate ANI-ASI mixture dates ranging from about 1,900 to 4,200 years ago. In a subset of groups, 100% of the mixture is consistent with having occurred during this period. These results show that India experienced a demographic transformation several thousand years ago, from a region in which major population mixture was common to one in which mixture even between closely related groups became rare because of a shift to endogamy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Gene Pool*
  • Genetics, Population*
  • Geography
  • Humans
  • India
  • Linguistics
  • Linkage Disequilibrium / genetics
  • Models, Genetic
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Time Factors
  • White People / genetics