Congenital myopathy is caused by mutation of HACD1

Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Dec 20;22(25):5229-36. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt380. Epub 2013 Aug 9.


Congenital myopathies are heterogeneous inherited diseases of muscle characterized by a range of distinctive histologic abnormalities. We have studied a consanguineous family with congenital myopathy. Genome-wide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous non-sense mutation in 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase 1 (HACD1) in affected individuals. The mutation results in non-sense mediated decay of the HACD1 mRNA to 31% of control levels in patient muscle and completely abrogates the enzymatic activity of dehydration of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA, the third step in the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). We describe clinical findings correlated with a deleterious mutation in a gene not previously known to be associated with congenital myopathy in humans. We suggest that the mutation in the HACD1 gene causes a reduction in the synthesis of VLCFAs, which are components of membrane lipids and participants in physiological processes, leading to congenital myopathy. These data indicate that HACD1 is necessary for muscle function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Consanguinity
  • Exome / genetics
  • Fatty Acids / metabolism
  • Female
  • Genetic Linkage
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Muscular Diseases / genetics*
  • Muscular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Mutation
  • Myopathies, Structural, Congenital / genetics*
  • Myopathies, Structural, Congenital / physiopathology
  • Pedigree
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / genetics*
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism
  • RNA Stability / genetics*


  • Fatty Acids
  • HACD1 protein, human
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases