Gender-transformative interventions to reduce HIV risks and violence with heterosexually-active men: a review of the global evidence

AIDS Behav. 2013 Nov;17(9):2845-63. doi: 10.1007/s10461-013-0565-2.


Emerging out of increased attention to gender equality within HIV and violence prevention programming has been an intensified focus on masculinities. A new generation of health interventions has attempted to shift norms of masculinity to be more gender equitable and has been termed "gender-transformative." We carried out a systematic review of gender-transformative HIV and violence prevention programs with heterosexually-active men in order to assess the efficacy of this programming. After reviewing over 2,500 abstracts in a systematic search, a total of 15 articles matched review criteria. The evidence suggests that gender-transformative interventions can increase protective sexual behaviors, prevent partner violence, modify inequitable attitudes, and reduce STI/HIV, though further trials are warranted, particularly in establishing STI/HIV impacts. In the conclusion, we discuss the promises and limitations of gender-transformative work with men and make suggestions for future research focused on HIV and/or violence prevention.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Domestic Violence* / prevention & control
  • Domestic Violence* / psychology
  • Domestic Violence* / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Global Health
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • HIV Infections / psychology
  • Health Education
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Heterosexuality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Masculinity*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Sexual Behavior* / ethnology
  • Sexual Behavior* / psychology
  • Sexual Partners* / psychology
  • Social Support