Purpose: A novel [(68)Ga]-labeled DOTA-4-amino-1-carboxymethyl-piperidine-D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2 peptide (BAY86-7548) having high affinity to bombesin receptor subtype II to detect primary and metastatic prostate carcinoma using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was synthesized and evaluated for prostate cancer.
Experimental design: In this first human study with BAY86-7548, 14 men scheduled for radical prostatectomy (n = 11) or with biochemical recurrence after surgery or hormonal therapy (n = 3) were enrolled. The patients received an intravenous injection of BAY86-7548 followed by over 60-minute dynamic imaging of prostate gland (n = 10) and/or subsequent whole-body imaging (n = 14). The visual assessment of PET/CT images included evaluation of intraprostatic (12 subsextants) and pelvic nodal uptake of BAY86-7548 in 11 surgical patients and detection of potential metastatic foci in all patients. In patients with biochemical recurrence, results were compared with those of either [(11)C]-acetate (n = 2) or [(18)F]-fluoromethylcholine (n = 1) PET/CT.
Results: We found a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88%, 81% and 83%, respectively, for detection of primary PCa and sensitivity of 70% for metastatic lymph nodes using histology as gold standard. BAY86-7548 correctly detected local recurrence in prostate bed and showed nodal relapse in accordance with [(11)C]-acetate PET/CT in 2 patients with biochemical relapse. In the third hormone refractory patient, BAY86-7548 failed to show multiple bone metastases evident on [(18)F]-fluoromethylcholine PET/CT.
Conclusion: BAY86-7548 PET/CT is a promising molecular imaging technique for detecting intraprostatic prostate cancer.