Okadaic acid meet and greet: an insight into detection methods, response strategies and genotoxic effects in marine invertebrates

Mar Drugs. 2013 Aug 9;11(8):2829-45. doi: 10.3390/md11082829.


Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) constitute one of the most important sources of contamination in the oceans, producing high concentrations of potentially harmful biotoxins that are accumulated across the food chains. One such biotoxin, Okadaic Acid (OA), is produced by marine dinoflagellates and subsequently accumulated within the tissues of filtering marine organisms feeding on HABs, rapidly spreading to their predators in the food chain and eventually reaching human consumers causing Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) syndrome. While numerous studies have thoroughly evaluated the effects of OA in mammals, the attention drawn to marine organisms in this regard has been scarce, even though they constitute primary targets for this biotoxin. With this in mind, the present work aimed to provide a timely and comprehensive insight into the current literature on the effect of OA in marine invertebrates, along with the strategies developed by these organisms to respond to its toxic effect together with the most important methods and techniques used for OA detection and evaluation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aquatic Organisms / genetics
  • Aquatic Organisms / metabolism
  • Dinoflagellida / metabolism
  • Food Chain
  • Food Contamination
  • Harmful Algal Bloom
  • Humans
  • Invertebrates / genetics
  • Invertebrates / metabolism
  • Marine Toxins / isolation & purification
  • Marine Toxins / toxicity*
  • Mutagens / isolation & purification
  • Mutagens / toxicity*
  • Okadaic Acid / isolation & purification
  • Okadaic Acid / toxicity*
  • Shellfish Poisoning / etiology


  • Marine Toxins
  • Mutagens
  • Okadaic Acid