Beyond their critical role in humoral immunity, B lymphocytes can employ a variety of immunomodulatory mechanisms including expression of the apoptosis-inducing molecule Fas ligand (FasL; CD178). Here, we extensively characterized the surface phenotype of FasL(+) killer B cells, showing they are enriched in the IgM(high)CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cell subset previously reported to contain a higher frequency of B cells producing interleukin-10 (IL-10). A rare population of B cells expressing IL-10 was present among FasL(+) B cells, but most FasL(+) B cells did not produce IL-10. We also identify interleukin-5 (IL-5) as a novel inducer of killer B cell function. Constitutively FasL(+) B cells expressed higher levels of the IL-5 receptor, and treating B cells with IL-5 and CD40L resulted in the expansion of a B cell population enriched for FasL(+) cells. B cells stimulated with IL-5 and CD40L were potent inducers of apoptosis in activated primary CD4(+) T cells, and this killing function was antigen-specific and dependent upon FasL. IL-5 also enhanced IL-10 secretion in B cells stimulated with CD40L. Taken together these findings elucidate the relationship of FasL(+) B cells and IL-10-producing B cells and demonstrate that IL-5 can induce or enhance both killer B cell activity and IL-10 secretion in B cells. Finally, we found that the killer B cell activity induced by IL-5 was completely blocked by IL-4, suggesting the existence of a previously unknown antagonistic relationship between these type-2 cytokines in modulating the activity of killer B cells. Targeting this IL-5/IL-4 signaling axis may therefore represent a novel area of drug discovery in inflammatory disorders.