Arf induction by Tgfβ is influenced by Sp1 and C/ebpβ in opposing directions

PLoS One. 2013 Aug 5;8(8):e70371. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070371. Print 2013.


Recent studies show that Arf, a bona fide tumor suppressor, also plays an essential role during mouse eye development. Tgfβ is required for Arf promoter activation in developing mouse eyes, and its capacity to induce Arf depends on Smads 2/3 as well as p38 Mapk. Substantial delay between activation of these pathways and increased Arf transcription imply that changes in the binding of additional transcription factors help orchestrate changes in Arf expression. Focusing on proteins with putative DNA binding elements near the mouse Arf transcription start, we now show that Tgfβ induction of this gene correlated with decreased expression and DNA binding of C/ebpβ to the proximal Arf promoter. Ectopic expression of C/ebpβ in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) blocked Arf induction by Tgfβ. Although basal levels of Arf mRNA were increased by C/ebpβ loss in MEFs and in the developing eye, Tgfβ was still able to increase Arf, indicating that derepression was not the sole factor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed increased Sp1 binding to the Arf promotor at 24 and 48 hours after Tgfβ treatment, at which time points Arf expression was significantly induced by Tgfβ. Chemical inhibition of Sp1 and its knockdown by RNA interference blocked Arf induction by Tgfβ in MEFs. In summary, our results indicate that C/ebpβ and Sp1 are negative and positive Arf regulators that are influenced by Tgfβ.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • ADP-Ribosylation Factors / genetics
  • ADP-Ribosylation Factors / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / genetics
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / metabolism*
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Laser Capture Microdissection
  • Mice
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Small Interfering / genetics
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor / genetics
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor / metabolism*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism


  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • ADP-Ribosylation Factors