Objective: To compare the effect of 2.5 vs 4 g/kg/d of amino acid (AA) in parenteral nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants on metabolic tolerance, short-term growth, and neurodevelopment.
Study design: One hundred thirty-one infants with birth weight between 500 and 1249 g were randomized to 2.5 (standard AA [SAA] group) or 4 (high AA [HAA] group) g/kg/d AA intake, with equal nonprotein energy. The primary outcome was body size at 36 weeks.
Results: One hundred thirty-one patients were randomized and 114 analyzed (58 SAA group and 56 HAA group). Study groups had similar demographics and clinical characteristics. Elevated blood urea (BU >70 mg/dL = BU nitrogen >32.6 mg/dL) occurred in 24% vs 59% (P = .000) and hyperglycemia (>175 mg/dL) in 34% vs 11% (P = .003) of the SAA and HAA patients, respectively. Body weight, length, and head circumference at 36 weeks and 2 years were similar between groups. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition score was 94 ± 13 in the SAA group and 97 ± 15 in the HAA group (P = .35).
Conclusions: The HAA group had higher BU levels and better glucose control. An extra 8 g/kg of AA over the first 10 days of life did not improve growth and neurodevelopment.
Keywords: AA; Amino acid; BU; BU nitrogen; BUN; BW; Bayley III; Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition; Birth weight; Blood urea; ELBWI; Extremely low birth weight infants; HAA; High amino acid; NPE; Nonprotein energy; PMA; PN; Parenteral nutrition; Postmenstrual age; RCT; Randomized clinical trial; SAA; Standard amino acid.
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