The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between dietary factors and sleep-wake regularity in the Japanese population. We analyzed 1368 eligible subjects (931 men and 437 women) aged 35-69 years who had participated in the baseline survey of a cohort study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Information on individual lifestyle characteristics, including dietary habits and sleep-wake regularity, was obtained by a self administrated questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate adjusted associations of the intake energy ratios of macronutrients, as well as intake frequency, and the amount of staple foods with sleep wake regularity. The lowest quartile of protein intake as well as the highest quartile of carbohydrates showed significantly higher multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.3) and 2.1 (1.3-3.5), respectively, for poor sleep-wake regularity compared with the respective second quartile that is thought to be moderate intake. Regarding intake of staple foods, low weekly intake frequency at breakfast (<5 times/week), the lowest intake amount (<1 bowl or slice/roll) at breakfast, and the highest intake amount (>=2 bowls or slices/ rolls) at lunch and dinner exhibited significantly high adjusted odds ratios for poor sleep-wake regularity. Additionally adjusting for sleep duration, these results did not substantially alter. Our results suggested that low intake energy ratio of proteins and high intake energy ratio of carbohydrates, skipping intake of the staple foods at breakfast, and excessive intake amount of the staple foods at lunch and dinner may be associated with poor sleep-wake regularity.
本研究之目的，為評估日本民眾的飲食特性與規律睡眠之間的相關性。分析對 象為1368 位參與日本德島縣世代研究，具有完整基礎資料的35-69 歲參與者 (931 位男性與437 位女性)。藉由自填式問卷，獲取個人生活型態的資料，其中 包含飲食特性及睡眠習慣。利用邏輯斯迴歸，分析巨量營養素熱量比、主食攝 取頻率及攝取量，與規律睡眠的校正相關。多變項校正後，蛋白質攝取最低 組，和碳水化合物攝取最高組，比起最適攝取量的第二分位組，睡眠不規律的 風險都為2.1(95%CI 分別為1.3-3.3 和1.3-3.5)。早餐攝取主食頻率小於每週五次 者、早餐飯麵攝取少於一碗或麵包攝取少於一片/卷者，以及午晚餐主食攝取最 高量者，在多變項校正後，有顯著較高睡眠不規律的風險。進一步校正睡眠時 間後，相關依然存在。本研究結果顯示，蛋白質熱量攝取較低、碳水化合物熱 量攝取較高、早餐的主食攝取太少、午晚餐主食攝取過量，會伴隨有睡眠不規 律的情形。