Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy of a motivational tobacco cessation treatment combined with nicotine replacement relative to usual care initiated in inpatient psychiatry.
Methods: We randomized participants (n = 224; 79% recruitment rate) recruited from a locked acute psychiatry unit with a 100% smoking ban to intervention or usual care. Prior to hospitalization, participants averaged 19 (SD = 12) cigarettes per day; only 16% intended to quit smoking in the next 30 days. Results. Verified smoking 7-day point prevalence abstinence was significantly higher for intervention than usual care at month 3 (13.9% vs 3.2%), 6 (14.4% vs 6.5%), 12 (19.4% vs 10.9%), and 18 (20.0% vs 7.7%; odds ratio [OR] = 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 8.14; P = .018; retention > 80%). Psychiatric measures did not predict abstinence; measures of motivation and tobacco dependence did. The usual care group had a significantly greater likelihood than the intervention group of psychiatric rehospitalization (adjusted OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.49).
Conclusions: The findings support initiation of motivationally tailored tobacco cessation treatment during acute psychiatric hospitalization. Psychiatric severity did not moderate treatment efficacy, and cessation treatment appeared to decrease rehospitalization risk, perhaps by providing broader therapeutic benefit.