Background: ICU admissions are ever increasing across the United States. Following critical illness, physical functioning (PF) may be impaired for up to 5 years. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of interventions targeting PF among ICU survivors. The objective of this study was to identify effective interventions that improve long-term PF in ICU survivors.
Methods: MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Physiotherapy Evidence-Based Database (PEDro) were searched between 1990 and 2012. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for eligibility, critically appraised the included studies, and extracted data into standardized evidence tables.
Results: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions included exercise/physical therapy (PT), parenteral nutrition, nurse-led follow-up, spontaneous awakening trials, absence of sedation during mechanical ventilation, and early tracheotomy. Nine studies failed to demonstrate efficacy on PF of the ICU survivors. However, early physical exercise and PT-based interventions had a positive effect on long-term PF.
Conclusions: The only effective intervention to improve long-term PF in critically ill patients is exercise/PT; its benefit may be greater if started earlier. Further research in this area comparing different interventions and timing is needed.