Extravasation of cytotoxic agents is a true medical emergency. Dexrazoxane is the only licensed drug for the treatment of anthracycline extravasations. Dexrazoxane proved to be effective and moderately well tolerated. However, alternative approaches for the management of anthracycline extravasations are available such as topical DMSO and cooling. There appears to be general agreement about dexrazoxane usefulness when extravasations involve large volumes of anthracycline and/or central venous access device. Nevertheless, the non-invasive combination of DMSO and cooling is the most commonly described therapy, particularly in small anthracycline extravasations. Further research is still needed to establish unequivocal situations where dexrazoxane must be initiated.