Walking through mud; history of the Polish methadone maintenance treatment from its stakeholders' perspective

Subst Use Misuse. 2013 Aug;48(11):977-96. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2013.797836.


This paper presents Polish methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) against the background of the dominant therapeutic community approach. The perspectives of various stakeholders-supporters and opponents-are examined as well as the barriers, facilitators, ideological conflicts, and financial interests influencing MMT policy and practice. In-depths interviews were carried out with 18 major stakeholders around 2012, almost two decades after the first MMT was launched. The interviews shed light on stakeholders' inter- and intragroup conflicts as well as on their official and hidden agendas, but they also show the relevant wider international and national, economic, and political contexts.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Methadone / therapeutic use*
  • Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Poland
  • Qualitative Research


  • Methadone