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. 2013 Aug 16;10:90.
doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-10-90.

HIV Latency and Integration Site Placement in Five Cell-Based Models

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Free PMC article

HIV Latency and Integration Site Placement in Five Cell-Based Models

Scott Sherrill-Mix et al. Retrovirology. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: HIV infection can be treated effectively with antiretroviral agents, but the persistence of a latent reservoir of integrated proviruses prevents eradication of HIV from infected individuals. The chromosomal environment of integrated proviruses has been proposed to influence HIV latency, but the determinants of transcriptional repression have not been fully clarified, and it is unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms drive latency in different cell culture models.

Results: Here we compare data from five different in vitro models of latency based on primary human T cells or a T cell line. Cells were infected in vitro and separated into fractions containing proviruses that were either expressed or silent/inducible, and integration site populations sequenced from each. We compared the locations of 6,252 expressed proviruses to those of 6,184 silent/inducible proviruses with respect to 140 forms of genomic annotation, many analyzed over chromosomal intervals of multiple lengths. A regularized logistic regression model linking proviral expression status to genomic features revealed no predictors of latency that performed better than chance, though several genomic features were significantly associated with proviral expression in individual models. Proviruses in the same chromosomal region did tend to share the same expressed or silent/inducible status if they were from the same cell culture model, but not if they were from different models.

Conclusions: The silent/inducible phenotype appears to be associated with chromosomal position, but the molecular basis is not fully clarified and may differ among in vitro models of latency.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Correlations of genomic features and latency. Spearman rank correlation between proviral expression status and genomic features. Only genomic features with at least one correlation with latency with a false discovery rate q-value >0.01 (marked by asterisks) are shown.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Lasso regressions predicting latency. Misclassification error from cross validation for lasso regressions of silent/inducible status on genomic features as a function of λ, the regularization coefficient for the lasso regression, for all cell culture models combined (A) and each individual cell culture model (B-F). The number of variables included and size of coefficients in the model increases to the left. Whiskers show the standard error of mean misclassification error. Dashed vertical lines indicate the minimum misclassification error and the simplest model within one standard error. Dotted horizontal line indicates the misclassification error expected from random guessing.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Cellular expression and latency. Predictions from a logistic regression of silent/inducible status on cellular RNA expression. High y-axis values are predicted to be silent/inducible. Dotted line shows where equal odds of silent/inducible and expressed are predicted. Solid lines show predictions from the regression for each sample and shaded regions indicate one standard error from the modeled predictions.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Strand orientation and latency. The proportion of provirus integrated in the opposite strand compared to cellular genes in silent/inducible (blue) and expressed (red) samples. Error bars show the 95% Clopper-Pearson binomial confidence interval. Dotted line shows the 0.5 proportion expected by chance.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Genes and latency.(A) The proportion of provirus integrated outside genes in silent/inducible (blue) and expressed (red) samples. Error bars show the 95% Clopper-Pearson binomial confidence interval. (B) The nearest distance to any gene for integration sites (points) outside genes in the five samples. Points are spread in proportion to kernel density estimates. Horizontal lines indicate sample means where there was a significant difference in means between silent/inducible and expressed provirus (black) or no significant difference (grey).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Alphoid repeats and latency. The proportion of integration sites with matches in alphoid repeats in silent/inducible (blue) and expressed (red) cells in five samples. Error bars show the 95% Clopper-Pearson binomial confidence interval. Asterisks indicate significant associations between integrations within an alphoid repeat and proviral expression status (Bonferroni corrected Fisher’s exact test p>0.05).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Acetylation and latency.(A) The number of ChIP-seq reads for H4K12ac, the histone mark with the lowest Fisher’s method p-value for correlation with latency, within 50,000 bases across the five samples. Integration sites (points) are spread in proportion to kernel density estimates. Horizontal lines indicate sample means where there was a significant difference (black) in means between silent/inducible and expressed provirus or no significant difference (grey). (B) The correlation (points) and its 95% confidence interval (vertical lines) between principal components of acetylation and silent/inducible status for each of the five samples. Red indicates correlations with a Bonferroni-corrected p-value >0.05.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Shared expression status between near neighbors. The ratio of the number of pairs of proviruses with matching expression status to the number of matches expected by random pairings given the frequency of silent/inducible proviruses. All possible pairs of proviruses integrated within a given distance of each other on the same chromosome (red line) were separated into two sets; one with both proviruses from within the same cell culture model and one with proviruses paired between two different cell culture models (black lines). The shaded region shows the 95% Clopper-Pearson binomial confidence interval for within and between sample pairings. The dashed horizontal line shows the ratio of 1 expected if there is no association between the expression status of neighboring proviruses.

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