Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples

Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Oct;60:514-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.08.018. Epub 2013 Aug 14.


In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals.

Keywords: Acrylamide; Cereal-based baby food; DI; EFSA; European Food Safety Authority; Exposure; GC–MS; IARC; International Agency for Research on Cancer; LOD; LOQ; TDI; Toddler; daily exposure; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; limit of detection; limit of quantification; tolerable daily intake.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamide / analysis*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Edible Grain / chemistry
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis*
  • Female
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Food / analysis*
  • Limit of Detection
  • Male
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Turkey
  • White People


  • Acrylamide