The inhibitory effect of a polymerisable cationic monomer on functional matrix metalloproteinases

J Dent. 2013 Nov;41(11):1101-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.08.008. Epub 2013 Aug 15.


Objectives: This study examined the use of methacryloxylethyl cetyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) as a potential matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibitor on both soluble recombinant and dentine matrix-bound endogenous MMPs, meanwhile attempted to determine the effective anti-MMP group of quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs).

Methods: The possible inhibitory effects of five DMAE-CB mass concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 3%, 5%) on soluble rhMMP-9 were measured using a colorimetic assay kit. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (METMAC) were also screened against rhMMP-9 to compare the inhibitory effect with DMAE-CB. Matrix-bound endogenous MMP-activity was evaluated in completely demineralized dentine beams. Thirty beams were randomly divided into three groups (N=10) and respectively placed into 500μL of calcium- and zinc-containing media (CM; control), 0.2% chlorhexidine or 3% DMAE-CB in CM aged for 30 days. The changes in modulus of elasticity, loss of dry mass and solubilization of collagen peptides were measured via three-point bending, precision weighing and hydroxyproline assay, respectively.

Results: 0.5-5% mass concentrations of DMAE-CB were highly effective (P<0.05) in inhibiting rhMMP-9 varied between 76.56±6.44% and 97.06±3.24%, the inhibitory effect of MMA was much lower than that of METMAC and DMAE-CB at the same concentration (P<0.05). Dentine beams incubated in 3% DMAE-CB showed only a 26.34% decrease in the modulus of elasticity (75.74% decrease in control), a 1.72±1.56% loss of dry mass (29.70±9.12% loss in control), and significantly less solubilized hydroxyproline when compared with the control (P<0.05).

Conclusions: DMAE-CB is effective in inhibiting both soluble recombinant MMPs and matrix-bound dentine MMPs. Quaternary ammonium group is the effective anti-MMP group of QAMs.

Clinical significance: The incorporation of DMAE-CB into dental adhesives has the potential to enhance the durability of dentine bonding and thus increases the longevity of restorations.

Keywords: Collagen; Dentine; Hydroxyproline; Inhibitor; Matrix metalloproteinase; Quaternary ammonium compounds.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chlorhexidine / pharmacology
  • Collagen / drug effects
  • Colorimetry
  • Dentin / chemistry
  • Dentin / enzymology*
  • Dipeptides / pharmacology
  • Elastic Modulus
  • Humans
  • Hydroxyproline / analysis
  • Materials Testing
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / drug effects
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Methacrylates / pharmacology*
  • Methylmethacrylate / pharmacology
  • Pliability
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Solubility
  • Time Factors
  • Tooth Demineralization / enzymology
  • Tooth Demineralization / metabolism


  • 2-(trimethylammonio)ethyl methacrylate
  • Dipeptides
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • Methacrylates
  • N-(2(R)-2-(hydroxamidocarbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl)-L-tryptophan methylamide
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  • methacryloxylethyl cetyl dimethyl ammonium
  • Methylmethacrylate
  • Collagen
  • MMP9 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Chlorhexidine
  • Hydroxyproline