Lysine succinylation is a frequently occurring modification in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and extensively overlaps with acetylation

Cell Rep. 2013 Aug 29;4(4):842-51. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.07.024. Epub 2013 Aug 15.


Recent studies have shown that lysines can be posttranslationally modified by various types of acylations. However, except for acetylation, very little is known about their scope and cellular distribution. We mapped thousands of succinylation sites in bacteria (E. coli), yeast (S. cerevisiae), human (HeLa) cells, and mouse liver tissue, demonstrating widespread succinylation in diverse organisms. A majority of succinylation sites in bacteria, yeast, and mouse liver were acetylated at the same position. Quantitative analysis of succinylation in yeast showed that succinylation was globally altered by growth conditions and mutations that affected succinyl-coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) metabolism in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, indicating that succinylation levels are globally affected by succinyl-CoA concentration. We preferentially detected succinylation on abundant proteins, suggesting that succinylation occurs at a low level and that many succinylation sites remain unidentified. These data provide a systems-wide view of succinylation and its dynamic regulation and show its extensive overlap with acetylation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Acyl Coenzyme A / metabolism*
  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Citric Acid Cycle
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / chemistry
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / metabolism*
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Lysine / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • Proteome / chemistry
  • Proteome / metabolism*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / chemistry
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism*


  • Acyl Coenzyme A
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Proteome
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • succinyl-coenzyme A
  • Lysine