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. 2013 Sep 12;501(7466):242-6.
doi: 10.1038/nature12436. Epub 2013 Aug 18.

Pathogen Blocks Host Death Receptor Signalling by Arginine GlcNAcylation of Death Domains

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Pathogen Blocks Host Death Receptor Signalling by Arginine GlcNAcylation of Death Domains

Shan Li et al. Nature. .

Abstract

The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family is crucial for immune homeostasis, cell death and inflammation. These cytokines are recognized by members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) family of death receptors, including TNFR1 and TNFR2, and FAS and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors. Death receptor signalling requires death-domain-mediated homotypic/heterotypic interactions between the receptor and its downstream adaptors, including TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) and FAS-associated death domain protein (FADD). Here we discover that death domains in several proteins, including TRADD, FADD, RIPK1 and TNFR1, were directly inactivated by NleB, an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) type III secretion system effector known to inhibit host nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling. NleB contained an unprecedented N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase activity that specifically modified a conserved arginine in these death domains (Arg 235 in the TRADD death domain). NleB GlcNAcylation (the addition of GlcNAc onto a protein side chain) of death domains blocked homotypic/heterotypic death domain interactions and assembly of the oligomeric TNFR1 complex, thereby disrupting TNF signalling in EPEC-infected cells, including NF-κB signalling, apoptosis and necroptosis. Type-III-delivered NleB also blocked FAS ligand and TRAIL-induced cell death by preventing formation of a FADD-mediated death-inducing signalling complex (DISC). The arginine GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB was required for bacterial colonization in the mouse model of EPEC infection. The mechanism of action of NleB represents a new model by which bacteria counteract host defences, and also a previously unappreciated post-translational modification.

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