Animal models of hemophilia and related diseases are important for the development of novel treatments and to understand the pathophysiology of bleeding disorders in humans. Testing in animals with the equivalent human disorder provides informed estimates of doses and measures of efficacy, which aids in design of human trials. Many models of hemophilia A, hemophilia B, and von Willebrand disease (VWD) have been developed from animals with spontaneous mutations (hemophilia A dogs, rats, sheep; hemophilia B dogs; and VWD pigs and dogs), or by targeted gene disruption in mice to create hemophilia A, B, or VWD models. Animal models have been used to generate new insights into the pathophysiology of each bleeding disorder and also to perform preclinical assessments of standard protein replacement therapies, as well as novel gene transfer technology. The differences both between species and in underlying causative mutations must be considered in choosing the best animal for a specific scientific study.