In the past 10 years it has become increasingly apparent that the gut microbiome has profound effects on the immune system to which it is juxtaposed, the mucosal immune system. Here, I explore recent studies in which the effects of the microbiota expand or facilitate anti-inflammatory or regulatory immunological machinery or which favor development of proinflammatory immunological machinery in this system. I then focus on how these opposing processes play out in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); a disease in which normal immune homeostasis is disturbed and inflammation takes hold.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory organisms; Gut microbiome; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Mucosal regulatory T cells; Proinflammatory (colitogenic organisms).
Published by Elsevier Ltd.