Impact of the gut microbiome on mucosal inflammation

Trends Immunol. 2013 Sep;34(9):423-30. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2013 Aug 16.


In the past 10 years it has become increasingly apparent that the gut microbiome has profound effects on the immune system to which it is juxtaposed, the mucosal immune system. Here, I explore recent studies in which the effects of the microbiota expand or facilitate anti-inflammatory or regulatory immunological machinery or which favor development of proinflammatory immunological machinery in this system. I then focus on how these opposing processes play out in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); a disease in which normal immune homeostasis is disturbed and inflammation takes hold.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory organisms; Gut microbiome; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Mucosal regulatory T cells; Proinflammatory (colitogenic organisms).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / microbiology*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / immunology
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / microbiology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology*
  • Microbiota