Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger

Accid Anal Prev. 2013 Oct;59:574-9. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.07.025. Epub 2013 Aug 6.


The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

Keywords: Accident; Ejection; Golf cart; Hip restraint; Low speed vehicle; Rear facing passenger.

MeSH terms

  • Acceleration*
  • Accidents / statistics & numerical data*
  • Golf
  • Humans
  • Manikins
  • Off-Road Motor Vehicles / standards
  • Off-Road Motor Vehicles / statistics & numerical data*
  • Restraint, Physical / standards
  • Restraint, Physical / statistics & numerical data*