Within species, populations differing by chromosomal rearrangements ("chromosomal races") may become reproductively isolated in association with reduced hybrid fertility due to meiotic aberrations. Speciation is also possible if hybridizing chromosomal races accumulate genetic differences because of reduced meiotic recombination in the heterozygous configuration in hybrids. Here, we examine recombination in pure races and hybrids within a model system for chromosomal speciation: the hybridization of the Poschiavo (CHPO) and Upper Valtellina (IUVA) chromosomal races of house mouse in Upper Valtellina, Italy. These races differ by Robertsonian fusions/whole-arm reciprocal translocations, such that hybrids produce a pentavalent meiotic configuration. We determined the number and position of the recombination points (using an antibody against the MutL homolog 1 [MLH1] protein) on synaptonemal complexes at pachytene in laboratory-reared CHPO, IUVA, and hybrid males, analyzing at least 112 spermatocytes per karyotypic group, up to a total of 534 spermatocytes. The mean ± standard deviation numbers of MLH1 foci per spermatocyte were 22.2 ± 3.2, 20.1 ± 2.9, 20.7 ± 2.3, and 21.9 ± 2.9 for CHPO, IUVA, CHPO × IUVA, and IUVA × CHPO, respectively. Altogether, 10,146 chromosome arms were examined, allowing multiple comparisons. Overall, recombination events were more frequently distal than proximal or interstitial. The average number of proximal MLH1 foci per chromosome arm decreased going from telocentric to metacentric bivalents to pentavalents (when present), which (together with other factors) influenced the average number of MLH1 foci per cell between CHPO, IUVA, and hybrid mice. The low frequency of proximal recombination in pentavalents of CHPO-IUVA hybrids may promote reproductive isolation between the CHPO and IUVA races, when coupled with reduced hybrid unfitness.