Objective: To identify trends in the prevalence and epidemiologic correlates of gastroschisis using a large population-based sample with cases identified by the National Birth Defects Prevention Network over the course of an 11-year period.
Methods: This study examined 4,713 cases of gastroschisis occurring in 15 states during 1995-2005, using public use natality data sets for denominators. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to identify statistically significant risk factors, and Joinpoint regression analyses were conducted to assess temporal trends in gastroschisis prevalence by maternal age and race and ethnicity.
Results: Results show an increasing temporal trend for gastroschisis (from 2.32 per 10,000 to 4.42 per 10,000 live births). Increasing prevalence of gastroschisis has occurred primarily among younger mothers (11.45 per 10,000 live births among mothers younger than age 20 years compared with 5.35 per 10,000 among women aged 20 to 24 years). In the multivariable analysis, using non-Hispanic whites as the referent group, non-Hispanic black women had the lowest risk of having a gastroschisis-affected pregnancy (prevalence ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.48), followed by Hispanics (prevalence ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.92). Gastroschisis prevalence did not differ by newborn sex.
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the prevalence of gastroschisis has been increasing since 1995 among 15 states in the United States, and that higher rates of gastroschisis are associated with non-Hispanic white maternal race and ethnicity, and maternal age younger than 25 years (particularly younger than 20 years of age).
Level of evidence: III.