DNAs of type strains and representative members of Actinomyces groups from the human periodontal flora and from other habitats were compared by using the S1 nuclease procedure to determine their genetic relatedness. One rather common group from the human periodontal flora, previously called "Actinomyces D08," is phenotypically distinct from, and genetically unrelated to, previously described species. We propose the name of Actinomyces georgiae for this organism; the type strain is strain ATCC 49285. Another common group from the human periodontal flora is Actinomyces israelii serotype II, which was found genetically distinct from the type strain of A. israelii (serotype I) and from other previously described species of Actinomyces. We propose the name Actinomyces gerencseriae for this organism; the type strain is strain ATCC 23860. A. naeslundii serotype I strains were distinct from the other strains studied. A separate genospecies which included strains of A. naeslundii serotypes II and III and A. viscosus serotype II was delineated. Strains of Actinomyces serotype WVA 963 constitute an additional distinct genospecies. Because there are no reliable phenotypic tests, other than serological analyses, to differentiate Actinomyces serotype WVA 963 and the two genospecies of A. naeslundii, no taxonomic changes are proposed for these three genospecies.