Non-small-cell lung cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths from cancer worldwide. Therefore, improvements in diagnostics and treatments are urgently needed. In this review, we will discuss the evolution of lung cancer staging towards more non-invasive, endoscopy-based, and image-based methods, and the development of stage-adapted treatment. A special focus will be placed on the role of novel surgical approaches and modern radiotherapy strategies for early stages of disease, the effect of multimodal treatment in locally advanced disease, and ongoing developments in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease. In particular, we will include an emphasis on targeted therapies, which are based on the assumption that a treatable driver mutation or gene rearrangement is present within the tumour. Finally, the position of lung cancer treatment on the pathway to personalised therapy will be discussed.
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