Up to date on primary ciliary dyskinesia in children

Early Hum Dev. 2013 Oct:89 Suppl 3:S45-8. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.07.022. Epub 2013 Aug 22.


Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a congenital, clinically and ultrastructurally heterogeneous disease due to abnormal structure and/or function of cilia, with impaired mucociliary transport leading to several respiratory disorders. PCD can be diagnosed by the combination of thorough clinical examination with functional and ultrastructural analysis of the cilia. This paper shows progresses in PCD diagnosis obtained by ciliogenesis in culture evaluation of ciliated respiratory cells and by genetic analysis of mutations in candidate genes. Moreover, since to date no specific treatments are available to correct the ciliary dysfunction, the paper shows the proper therapeutical approach by the use of respiratory physiotherapy and regular exercise to favour airways clearance, by antibiotics administration to control acute airway infections. Macrolides administration as antiinflammatory option is suggested.

Keywords: Diagnosis; Genetic mutations; Monitoring; Primary ciliary dyskinesia; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Axoneme / ultrastructure
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kartagener Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Kartagener Syndrome / genetics*
  • Kartagener Syndrome / pathology
  • Kartagener Syndrome / therapy
  • Mutation