Recent insights into Candida albicans biofilm resistance mechanisms

Curr Genet. 2013 Nov;59(4):251-64. doi: 10.1007/s00294-013-0400-3. Epub 2013 Aug 25.


Like other microorganisms, free-living Candida albicans is mainly present in a three-dimensional multicellular structure, which is called a biofilm, rather than in a planktonic form. Candida albicans biofilms can be isolated from both abiotic and biotic surfaces at various locations within the host. As the number of abiotic implants, mainly bloodstream and urinary catheters, has been increasing, the number of biofilm-associated bloodstream or urogenital tract infections is also strongly increasing resulting in a raise in mortality. Cells within a biofilm structure show a reduced susceptibility to specific commonly used antifungals and, in addition, it has recently been shown that such cells are less sensitive to killing by components of our immune system. In this review, we summarize the most important insights in the mechanisms underlying biofilm-associated antifungal drug resistance and immune evasion strategies, focusing on the most recent advances in this area of research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biofilms / drug effects*
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Candida albicans / drug effects*
  • Candida albicans / immunology
  • Candida albicans / physiology
  • Candidiasis / drug therapy*
  • Drug Resistance, Fungal / immunology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Immune Evasion / immunology*


  • Antifungal Agents