The effects of 2 levels of dietary calcium and 2 types of dietary fat on the promotional phase phase of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in the F344 rat were investigated. During the initiation phase of carcinogenesis all animals were fed a 5% corn oil AIN-76A diet containing 0.32% Ca in the form of calcium lactate. Rats were then injected with azoxymethane (AOM) weekly for 8 weeks. Thereafter, the rats were fed 1 of 3 diet formulations: a 5% corn oil diet or a 20% corn oil or 20% American Blend oil fat diet, with the level of Ca set at either 0.32% of the diet, a nutrient density simulating a daily human intake of approximately 1700 mg Ca/day, or at 0.04% of the diet, reflecting a human daily intake of approximately 200-250 mg of Ca/day, thus modeling 2 human nutrient density levels for calcium. Measurements of fecal pH during the experiment indicated an acidic adaptation of the large bowel to the lactate anion. Analysis of collected fecal samples showed more total fatty acids to be present in the colon when higher amounts of calcium were consumed. However, results of the tumorigenesis study indicated that calcium lactate fed at the 0.32% level significantly inhibited the development of colonic adenocarcinoma in all dietary groups. Taken together, this investigation supports the hypothesis that calcium supplementation can inhibit colon neoplasia in rats fed a high fat diet; however, under the conditions of this study, the 20% fat level did not significantly promote colon cancer as compared to a 5% fat level.