In 1- to 72-day-old kittens, motoneurons of the 3 peroneal muscle nuclei were labeled by retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase from individual muscles. At birth, the locations of peroneal nuclei were similar to those of the adult cat. Counts of motoneurons at different ages indicated that postnatal cell death does not occur in peroneal motor nuclei. Primary dendrites were as numerous in motoneurons of newborn kittens as in adult motoneurons but they were thinner, shorter and poorly ramified. The number of recurrent axon collaterals was higher in the first postnatal week than at later stages. The growth of motoneurons followed similar rates in the 3 peroneal nuclei. Distributions of cell body diameters and volumes were unimodal at birth and became bimodal between 15 and 20 days postnatal. The separation of peroneal motoneurons in two size subgroups, presumably corresponding to alpha and gamma populations, was followed by an increase in growth rate which became faster for alpha than for gamma motoneurons.