Cardiac Per2 functions as novel link between fatty acid metabolism and myocardial inflammation during ischemia and reperfusion injury of the heart

PLoS One. 2013 Aug 20;8(8):e71493. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071493. eCollection 2013.


Disruption of peripheral circadian rhyme pathways dominantly leads to metabolic disorders. Studies on circadian rhythm proteins in the heart indicated a role for Clock or Per2 in cardiac metabolism. In contrast to Clock(-/-), Per2(-/-) mice have larger infarct sizes with deficient lactate production during myocardial ischemia. To test the hypothesis that cardiac Per2 represents an important regulator of cardiac metabolism during myocardial ischemia, we measured lactate during reperfusion in Per1(-/-), Per2(-/-) or wildtype mice. As lactate measurements in whole blood indicated an exclusive role of Per2 in controlling lactate production during myocardial ischemia, we next performed gene array studies using various ischemia-reperfusion protocols comparing wildtype and Per2(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, high-throughput gene array analysis revealed dominantly lipid metabolism as the differentially regulated pathway in wildtype mice when compared to Per2(-/-). In all ischemia-reperfusion protocols used, the enzyme enoyl-CoA hydratase, which is essential in fatty acid beta-oxidation, was regulated in wildtype animals only. Studies using nuclear magnet resonance imaging (NMRI) confirmed altered fatty acid populations with higher mono-unsaturated fatty acid levels in hearts from Per2(-/-) mice. Unexpectedly, studies on gene regulation during reperfusion revealed solely pro inflammatory genes as differentially regulated 'Per2-genes'. Subsequent studies on inflammatory markers showed increasing IL-6 or TNFα levels during reperfusion in Per2(-/-) mice. In summary, these studies reveal an important role of cardiac Per2 for fatty acid metabolism and inflammation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, respectively.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • High-Throughput Screening Assays
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Inflammation / metabolism*
  • Lactates / blood
  • Mice
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / blood
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / genetics
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / metabolism*
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / pathology*
  • Myocardium / metabolism*
  • Myocardium / pathology*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Period Circadian Proteins / deficiency
  • Period Circadian Proteins / metabolism*
  • Phenotype
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Signal Transduction / genetics


  • Cytokines
  • Fatty Acids
  • Lactates
  • Per1 protein, mouse
  • Per2 protein, mouse
  • Period Circadian Proteins