This report describes two cases of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN). The patients, who presented with fever and delirious behavior, exhibited hyponatremia and markedly elevated interleukin (IL)-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Enterococcus faecalis was detected in the urine culture. After ampicillin treatment, their consciousness improved without neurological sequelae. Moreover, a diffusion-weighted MRI abnormality, i.e., intensified signals in splenium of the corpus callosum, disappeared. MERS is a possible complication of AFBN. Elevated CSF IL-6 levels suggest that remote activation of intracerebral immune response through the immune-neuroendocrine pathway might play an important role in the pathophysiology of MERS.
Keywords: Acute focal bacterial nephritis; Corpus callosum; Cytokine; Encephalitis; Encephalopathy; Splenium.
Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.