Women and transplantation: fertility, sexuality, pregnancy, contraception

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2013 Sep;20(5):433-40. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2013.06.005.


Since 1958, thousands of women with kidney transplants have become pregnant. Although most pregnancies in kidney transplant recipients are successful, they are high-risk endeavors. This seems more a function of the associated issues and comorbidities that often affect individuals with kidney transplants (eg, hypertension) or immunosuppression side effects rather than the kidney transplant per se. Regardless of the underlying pathophysiology, these pregnancies are associated with a high rate of preeclampsia diagnoses, preterm deliveries, Cesarean sections, and small-for-gestational-age babies. Given these risks, it is critical to counsel and inform transplant recipients and prospective transplant recipients of childbearing age and their partners regarding many aspects of pregnancy, including the need for contraception to prevent pregnancy after transplant, immunosuppression concerns, and the potential effect of pregnancy on the outcome of the mother, baby, and kidney transplant.

Keywords: Kidney transplant; Pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cesarean Section
  • Contraception
  • Female
  • Fertility*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Small for Gestational Age
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Pre-Eclampsia
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications*
  • Premature Birth
  • Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological
  • Sexuality


  • Immunosuppressive Agents