Hatena arenicola (Katablepharidophycota) is a single-celled eukaryote that temporarily possesses a chlorophyte alga of the genus Nephroselmis as an intracellular symbiont. In the present study, we investigated the molecular diversity of the endosymbiont Nephroselmis in a natural population of the host H. arenicola. We sequenced the host's 18S rRNA gene and the endosymbiont's plastid-encoded 16S rRNA gene. The results indicated that almost identical strains of the host harbored at least three distinct strains of the algal endosymbiont affiliated to the clade Nephroselmis rotunda. This finding supports our previous hypothesis that H. arenicola and its symbiotic alga are in an early stage of secondary endosymbiosis.