To evaluate the existing evidence regarding treatment regimens for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), a systematic review of the available therapeutic studies was conducted to assess treatment outcomes. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to assess treatment outcomes. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by separating studies based on each characteristic independently. Twenty-eight trials met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis showed that the estimated pooled treatment success rate for patients with MAC disease was 39 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 38-41 %]. The rates of failure, relapse, death, and default were 27 % (95 % CI 25-29 %), 6 % (95 % CI 5-7 %), 17 % (95 % CI 15-18 %), and 12 % (95 % CI 11-13 %), respectively. The proportion of patients treated successfully did not differ significantly on the basis of the study characteristics. However, studies with treatment regimens containing macrolides had significantly higher pooled success proportions (42 %, 95 % CI 40-44 %) than that of other studies (28 %, 95 % CI 24-32 %). Substantial heterogeneity in the study characteristics prevented more conclusive determination of what factors had the greatest effect on the proportion of patients that achieve treatment success and limited the validity of this analysis. This review underscored the importance of strong patient support and treatment follow-up systems to develop successful MAC treatment programs.