In recent years, fecal microbiota transplantation (aka fecal transplantation, fecal bacteriotherapy, FMT) has become increasing utilized to treat recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Almost 600,000 cases of CDI occur each year in the United States. Of these, an estimated 15,000 patients have a recurrence. The management of recurrent disease has been challenging for patients and clinicians. Increasingly, FMT has been recognized as an effective option for these patients. This article explores why FMT has reemerged as a practical therapeutic modality. In the process, the logistics by which the procedure is performed and the factors that may affect quality, safety, and patient outcomes will be described.
Keywords: Clostridium difficile metagenome; fecal microbiota transplant; fecal transplant; microbiome.