Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common degenerative disorders of the central nervous system that produces motor and non-motor symptoms. The majority of cases are idiopathic and characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies containing fibrillar α-synuclein. Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) immunoreactivity was observed among others in cases with PD. Key disease-associated proteins are SUMO-modified, linking this posttranslational modification to neurodegeneration. SUMOylation and SUMO-mediated mechanisms have been intensively studied in recent years, revealing nuclear and extranuclear functions for SUMO in a variety of cellular processes, including the regulation of transcriptional activity, modulation of signal transduction pathways, and response to cellular stress. This points to a role for SUMO more than just an antagonist to ubiquitin and proteasomal degradation. The identification of risk and age-at-onset gene loci was a breakthrough in PD and promoted the understanding of molecular mechanisms in the pathology. PD has been increasingly linked with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired mitochondrial quality control. Interestingly, SUMO is involved in many of these processes and up-regulated in response to cellular stress, further emphasizing the importance of SUMOylation in physiology and disease.